Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Curriculum and Instruction

Major Professor

Ruthmae Sears, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kristine Hogarty, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Sanghoon Park, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Milé Krajčevski, Ph.D.


computer literacy, teacher, confidence, SMART Lab, safe learning environment


Research states that many remedial mathematics learners possess low mathematics academic self-concept, negative attitudes, and high anxiety levels. These aspects can manifest in a lack of confidence, apprehension, reduced engagement, or academic failure (2007; Klinger, 2008; Larkin & Jorgensen, 2016; Parnis & Petocz, 2016;). However, if these learners successfully pass remedial mathematics courses like Intermediate Algebra, they are more likely to persist in mathematics and the university (Benken et al., 2015). Due to students' success in remedial mathematics, persistence in mathematics raises many questions. In many cases, these students have had unpleasant experiences, attitudes, or beliefs about mathematics but were still able to succeed in the course (Loughlin et al., 2019). Additionally, due to the vast integration and communal embrace of the digital era in academia, Intermediate Algebra is increasingly taught and learned by technology. However, only some studies explore how technological learning environments impact students, particularly those enrolled in Intermediate Algebra, their attitudes, learning experiences, or success. Hence, there is a need to examine students' perspectives of technology in learning mathematical content taught in Intermediate Algebra courses. Accordingly, this study examined Intermediate Algebra students, from a southeastern university within the United States, perspectives of learning mathematical content in an environment that amplified technology integration in mathematics teaching and learning, using an embedded mixed method pre-and post-test research design. None of the constructs produced statistically significant differences with the 394 Intermediate Algebra students' pre- and post-test averages regardless of the semester the course was taken, the gender of the student (whether male or female), or the instructor teaching level (whether a graduate teaching assistant or not). There were also no statistically significant differences in the Intermediate Algebra students paired pre- and post-averages, as seen by dependent t-test results. Nonetheless, the findings offered meaning insights as participants had neutral confidence in mathematics, valued mathematics, and possessed a positive perspective on learning mathematics with technology. Additionally, participants identified specific teacher attributes, the SMART Lab, and features of the MyLabsPlus online learning management system as factors that influenced their confidence and impacted their learning. The findings have implications to inform curriculum designs and teaching and learning practices in mathematics education, higher education, and instructional technology.