Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Curriculum and Instruction

Major Professor

Ilene Berson, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jolyn Blank, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Sophia Han, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Sara Flory, Ph.D.


Digital Technology, Early Years Education, Saudi Arabia, TPACK


This study investigated Saudi pre-service teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding digital technology in early years classrooms. It sought to determine whether participants were prepared to employ such technology to meet the objectives of the Saudi Vision 2030 national development program. This topic was viewed through the lens of the TPACK framework. The study found that the student teachers were not sufficiently prepared to infuse digital technology. They held positive beliefs about digital technology infusion but were concerned about young children’s use of this technology. There was an absence of effective practices, participants’ technical competence was very basic, and their recognition of the benefits of digital technology was limited. Their digital technology practices were largely based on passive, teacher-centered learning. A lack of practice, feedback, role models, and relevant courses had a strong impact on their conceptualization, beliefs, and implementation of digital technology during their internships.