Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

MS in Electrical Engineering (M.S.E.E.)

Degree Granting Department

Electrical Engineering

Major Professor

Andrew M. Hoff, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Mark J. Jaroszeski, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Stephen E. Saddow, Ph.D.


ITO, Low voltage electroporation, Transparent Microelectrode


Gene delivery is the process of delivering the modified gene into the human cell. There are two types of gene delivery depending on where the target cells are. The in-vivo gene delivery deals with delivering the altered genes into the cells while still in the host body. While another approach is to extract the cells from the host body, transfer the modified gene into cells and then put these cells back into the host body, this approach is called the ex-vivo method.

A vector is a carrier that carries the modified gene to the host cell or body. Hence, depending on how the gene was brought into the contact of cells, there are two different methods. In Viral vectors, the viruses are the carriers; the viruses carry the required gene to the target cells. Non-viral methods use different approaches to deliver the modified gene to the cell’s body. One of the non-viral vectors is the Physical method. In this method, the altered gene is introduced into the required cell using physical methods. In the physical method, the cell membrane is counteracted by using physical force. Electroporation is one of the many physical methods. In this method, a sufficient electric field is applied to the cell, causing the walls of the cells to open. Thus, creating pores using an electric field, hence electroporation.

Different devices have been made to achieve electroporation efficiently and conveniently. These include the use of cuvette and many other researched devices. This document contributes to this field by giving a methodology to fabricate a transparent microelectrode array that can deliver the DNA.

The advantage of this electrode is that it is transparent; hence it may be used to see the electroporation process when it is happening. Another advantage of this electrode is that it is a microelectrode. This means that the voltages required to reach the transmembrane potential are low compared to conventional methods. Lower voltage means less chance of cells dying during the process, increasing the efficacy of the process. Hence, higher electric fields can be attained with comparatively low voltages.