Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)

Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Kelsey L. Merlo, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Brenton M. Wiernik, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Fallon R. Goodman, Ph.D.


Aberrant Responding, Detection Methods, ESM, Insufficient Effort Responding


In the current study we examine the prevalence and several predictors of careless responding to an experience sampling (ESM) study. While careless responding has been noted as a potential problem in ESM research, few studies have examined the prevalence of this behavior (Beal, 2015; Berkel et al., 2017; Eisele et al., 2020; Gabriel et al., 2019; Jaso et al., 2021). Using statistical methods of careless response classification, we derive cut scores from data simulation and graphical examination of item correlations, and flag 44.98% of response episodes as careless. A majority of these flagged episodes were the product of overly consistent response patterns, such as long strings of identical responses or low variance response patterns. Further analyses revealed that careless responding increased significantly over time and was associated with several personality variables. Taken together, these results indicate that careless responding is a serious issue in ESM studies and is related to both study-level and individual-level factors.