Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Raymond G. Miltenberger, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kimberly Crosland, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Catia Cividini-Motta, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Diego Valbuena, Ph.D.


auditory stimulation, music, podcast, running, survey


Promoting running as an accessible and cost-effective form of exercise is important because persistent runners have a 29 to 50% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to those who never run (Lee et al., 2014). Although there is a body of research on music and running, the results have been inconclusive across the literature. This may be due to a reliance on self-report measures and the averaging of results employed with group designs. To address these issues, the current study measured performance (pace) as the primary dependent variable in a series of within-subject designs. First, an online cross-sectional survey (Study 1) was conducted to identify common behaviors and preferences of active runners to inform the subsequent study (Study 2). The results from the 555 runners surveyed indicated that 77.12% of runners listened to music while they ran, and of those 60.98% used a boost song to amplify music’s effects within their run. Moreover, 35.5% of runners listened to a podcast (or similar) while running. As such, the second study evaluated the effects of (a) music playlist, (b) boost song, and (c) podcast on running performance in a series of three-component multiple schedule arrangements. Despite participants reporting a preference for listening to audio when they ran, an increase in pace was found for only three of the 18 analyses conducted for this measure. These results suggest that music’s effects on running pace are likely idiosyncratic across individuals. A follow up survey focusing on the potential functional relationship between music and running adherence should be a consideration for future studies. Other future research should evaluate music in a consequent arrangement to further investigate if music can affect running pace.