Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Jack Darkes, Ph.D.

Co-Major Professor

Diana Rancourt, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jon Rottenberg, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Eric Storch, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kristen Salomon, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Brent Small, Ph.D.


Male Body Image, Chest Satisfaction, Clinical Psychology, Gynecomastia Treatment


Gynecomastia is a condition in which 3% of males will go on to develop permanent excess breast tissue and has been associated with a number of psychosocial consequences. In recent years, gynecomastia surgery has been in the top 5 cosmetic procedures sought out by men. There is a limited amount of research regarding psychosocial outcomes of gynecomastia surgery despite the large number of men seeking surgery, and the current literature on outcomes has yet to examine chest satisfaction within the context of gynecomastia surgery. The current study sought to add to the treatment literature on gynecomastia by examining chest satisfaction, appearance evaluation, chest-related state anxiety, general trait anxiety, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, eating pathology, and various facets of health-related quality of life, before and after surgery. Mixed effects models were used to examine change at baseline, 1 month post-op, 3 months post-op, 6 months post-op, and 12 months post-op. Paired samples t-tests were used to examine change from baseline to 12 months post-op. Additionally, it may be that chest satisfaction in this population has not been examined due to limited body image measures that tap into this construct. Therefore, another aim of this study was to examine the psychometrics of a newly created chest satisfaction measure. The results from the current study showed significant improvement in chest satisfaction and appearance evaluation from baseline to 12 months post-op. Additionally, chest-related anxiety significantly decreased, and social functioning significantly improved over time. The current study also provided preliminary psychometric support for the Chest Satisfaction Questionnaire. Taken together, these findings may indicate the potential for chest-specific and body image-related variables to improve following gynecomastia surgery and provide a new measure that can be used to assess chest satisfaction within the gynecomastia population.