Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)

Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Kimberly Crosland, Ph.D., BCBA-D

Committee Member

Kwang-Sun Blair, Ph.D., BCBA-D

Committee Member

Catia Cividini-Motta, Ph.D., BCBA-D


ASD, echolalia, matched stimulation, non-contextual speech, RIRD, scripting


The exact prevalence of vocal stereotypy within individuals diagnosed with ASD in currently unknown. In a 2011 study on symptoms of ASD by Mayes and Calhoun, 85% of parents reported their child engaged in repetitive, atypical speech or vocalizations. While there is a plethora of research on behavioral interventions to reduce levels of vocal stereotypy in individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, at the time this review was written there is only one published review of the literature written by Lanovaz and Sladeczek in 2011. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to extend and update the 2011 review conducted by Lanovaz and Sladeczek. Like the former article, this paper describes and compares various antecedent-based interventions and consequence-based interventions. NCR appears to be the most studied and effective antecedent-based intervention to lessen immediate engagement in VS. RIRD (both motor and vocal demands) and differential reinforcement appear to be the most studied consequence-based interventions. Though RIRD is labor intensive for the individual implementing the procedure and can be disruptive, it appears to be the most effective consequence-based intervention for lowering levels of VS. Unlike the Lanovaz and Sladeczek (2011) article, this paper also examines studies which utilize both antecedent- and consequence-based interventions. While RIRD + antecedent-based interventions and DRO + antecedent-based interventions appear to be the most researched multicomponent interventions, other combinations of antecedent- and consequence-based interventions should be examined due to the results of the interventions discussed appearing to be very specific to each individual.