Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)

Degree Granting Department

Mass Communications

Major Professor

Frederick Pearce, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Artemio Ramirez, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Roxanne Watson, Ph.D.


Advertising, Coding, Commercials, Football, Television


There have been studies that have looked at how television commercials represent or portray minorities such as gender or race. Very few have tried to look at how commercials compare to the culture, specifically in regards to a presidential term and the culture they promote. This present study examines Super Bowl commercials during the culture war led by the Donald Trump administration and looks to discover if these advertisements are becoming more diverse in comparison to the previous presidency. Using content analysis, the researcher analyzed and compared 50 commercials from three different time periods 2009-2010, 2013-2014, and 2017-2018. The categories looked at were gender, families, racial minorities, and messages of inclusivity, immigration, and patriotism. The results from this study show that Donald Trump did not win the culture war and Super Bowl commercials are becoming more diverse during the Trump term by including more minority diversity, themes of inclusivity, and themes on immigration.