Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)

Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Catia Cividini-Motta, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Raymond Miltenberger, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Nicole McMillian, Ph.D.


delayed reinforcement, skill acquisition, immediate reinforcement, praise


This review of literature analyzes the use of immediate and delayed reinforcement within discrete trial training (DTT). Criteria for inclusion in this review consisted of articles published in English, human participants, single subject design, targeting skill acquisition in a DTT format, and inclusion of at least one delay to reinforcement condition. Four articles, with a total of 18 participants and 23 datasets, were identified in this review. Data on participants’ characteristics and procedural modifications (i.e., target response, type of prompt, delivery of praise, use of an error correction procedure, type of reinforcer, and delay to reinforcement) were extracted. Results indicate that immediate reinforcement conditions required the fewest sessions to mastery for various skills across the majority of participants. In addition, in various articles immediate or delayed praise was delivered alongside with other reinforces; result suggest that immediate praise may mediate delayed access to other reinforces.