Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)

Degree Granting Department

Mass Communications

Major Professor

Kimberly Walker, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Roxanne Watson, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Travis Bell, Ph.D.


copyright consciousness, individual needs, and product variables


This study adopted use and gratification theory as a theoretical guide to explores the impact of individual needs, product variables, and copyright consciousness on audience’s willingness to pay in paid sports media in China. The most important part of this study was tested whether product variables act as a mediating factor and whether copyright consciousness plays as a moderating factor to influence the relationship between individual needs and willingness to pay. This quantitative study collects the data from a sample of 679 (valid N=568) Chinese adults who have some exposure or understanding of the paid sports model in mainland China. The results revealed that all of the dimensions of individual needs and product variables have a positive relationship with willingness to pay in paid sports. There are two regression models: (1) purchase willingness = 0.16 * interest needs + 0.176 * cognitive needs + 0.360 * affective needs + 0.273 * social interaction needs; (2) purchase willingness =0.108* membership privilege +0.115* video quality +0.128* sports commentary +0.237* exclusive broadcasting +0.359* price setting. Furthermore, findings indicate that the effect of individual needs on willingness to pay is partially mediated by product variables. In addition, copyright can moderate between individual needs and willingness to pay. All of the results have statistical meaning.