Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)

Degree Granting Department

Mass Communications

Major Professor

Roxanne Watson, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Artemio Ramirez, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Deborah Bowen, Ph.D.


Cinema, Clothing, Dance, Hindi, Sexual, Songs


Although sexual objectification is commonplace in media culture, music videos provide the most potent examples of it. The current investigation makes an important contribution to the relevant literature regarding the objectification of women in song lyrics while simultaneously broadening the content used to assess objectification. It reflects the ways of objectification of women in India by analyzing Bollywood rap and item songs. Based on objectification theory, one of the primary goals in the present study was to measure differences between visual and behavioral sexual objectification, drawing on theoretically derived indicators of sexual objectification. It also concentrated on measuring the change in the objectification patterns over the years. This was done by conducting a content analysis of 201 songs (n=201). The findings suggested that the visual objectification of women was higher than the behavioral objectification of women and that there is a shift in the common themes and the level of objectification over the decades.