Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)

Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Sarah E. Bloom, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jennifer R. Weyman, M.A.

Committee Member

Catia Cividini-Motta, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kimberly Crosland, Ph.D.


differential reinforcement, Down syndrome, response cost, token economy


There is some discrepancy on how differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and response cost (RC) affect responding within the context of token economies. We evaluated DRO and two variations of response cost with and without verbal feedback to decrease response errors in the context of academic skills for three children diagnosed with Down syndrome. The results suggest that a token economy intervention alone, with or without verbal feedback, was not effective for 2 of 3 participants. Gestural prompting was required to reduce response errors for those 2 participants and is possibly responsible for reducing response errors for the third participant.