Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Business Administration

Major Professor

James Ellis Blanton, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Richard Will, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Anol Bhattacherjee, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Robert Fuller, Ph.D.


User acceptance, ERP systems, Resistant behaviors, Mandatory adoption, User types


User resistance is an important issue in the implementation of an Enterprise System (ES). However, despite the prevalence of user adoption literature, user resistance literature is scarce. Although some studies have conceptualized user resistance as the opposite of user adoption, a mandatory, role-transforming system such as an ES clearly shows that users may use a system while resisting it. Although this area is highly relevant, it is theoretically underdeveloped. This study examines user resistance at the individual level of analysis to determine the underlying reasons for user resistance, the types of resistant behaviors, and the management strategies to minimize resistance. It also seeks to understand the types of users that exist during an implementation and in particular, the groups of resisters. This dissertation identifies four categories of reasons for user resistance, which comprise a total of twelve reasons for user resistance. Resistant behaviors are also identified and classified. Three categories of management strategies are also identified, comprising a total of eight management strategies that are useful in minimizing user resistance. Groups of ES users are also described and examined.