Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)

Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Kimberly Crosland, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kwang-Sun Cho Blair, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Rose Iovannone, Ph.D.


active responding, elementary education, instructional management, positive behavior support, response cards


This study examined the effects of preprinted response cards on disruptive behavior and rates and accuracy of responding of elementary-aged students in an inclusive education setting with or at risk for Individualized Education Plans (IEPs). An alternating treatments design with an additional baseline phase was used across three teacher recommended students. During baseline, the teacher conducted a group language arts routine as normal, posing questions to the class and prompting them to raise their hands to answer. During the intervention phase, preprinted response cards (two sets: one true/false and one A/B) were passed out to the class to utilize during the group language arts routine to answer questions. The response card intervention was alternated with the baseline phase in each observation session. The results showed that disruptive behavior decreased substantially across all three students during the response card condition. Additionally, rates of responding and accuracy of responding increased across all three participants during the response card condition. Results indicate that the preprinted choice cards could serve as an effective classroom management strategy in inclusive education settings.