Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Early Childhood Education and Literacy Studies

Major Professor

Susan P. Homan, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Darlene DeMarie, Ph.D.

Committee Member

John Ferron, Ph.D.

Committee Member

James R. King, Ed.D.


ERAS, Mixed-study, Scripted literacy, Third-grade, Voyager Passport


This mixed-method study explored and examined the reading attitudes of thirdgrade struggling readers (n=91) following six weeks of summer school using a scripted literacy program (Voyager Passport). During the quantitative portion of the study students (n=91) from five different summer school sites were given the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (McKenna & Kear, 1990). The survey, which was administered by the classroom teacher the first day of summer school and the last week of summer school, provided scores for academic, recreational and total reading attitude. Following data collection the results of the ERAS surveys were analyzed using a dependent measures t-test as well as descriptive statistics.

Results revealed no significant differences in recreational or total reading attitude following summer school using a scripted literacy program. Gender and school site were both examined using a multivariate analysis. Results indicated no statistically significant differences based on gender. However, when academic attitude was examined the results for school site were found to be significant F (4, 90) = 2.87, p = .03. A follow-up Tukey test revealed that although there was a difference in academic attitudes between the school sites, the variation could not be pinpointed to particular sites.

The qualitative portion of the study relied on both field notes gathered through classroom observations (n=113) and focus groups. One focus group was held at each of the five summer school sites. During focus groups a group moderator asked the students a series of six questions. Results were analyzed using semantic content analysis (Stewart & Shamdasani, 1990) to identify themes related to students' attitudes about reading. After a cross case analysis of the targeted classrooms was conducted, triangulation was used to compare the findings from the ERAS survey, classroom observations, and focus groups. The qualitative findings revealed that following summer school students liked to read, felt they were better readers, and felt prepared to take the standardized test. However, only 29% of the students passed the alternative assessment. The results also revealed questions regarding the fidelity of the implementation and concerns with the lack of norming data on the fidelity measure.