Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Business Administration

Major Professor

Andrew Artis, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Daniel Bradley, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Richard Plank, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Paul Solomon, Ph.D.


Sales Coaching, sales performance, self-determination theory, structural equation modeling, scale development


In general, scholars and practitioners agree that sales coaching enhances sales performance. Sales firms continue to invest billions of dollars towards coaching endeavors. However, despite the positive benefits of sales coaching, the fact is that most sales coaches are ineffective. In three essays, this dissertation aims to offer insight that will help companies and coaching programs improve the effectiveness of their sales coaches.

The first essay explores the sales coaching process and how it is affected by factors related to the sales manager (coach) and the salesperson (coachee). Using in-depth interviews, we identified various skills, behaviors, and abilities that reflect the overall effectiveness of the sales manager as a coach, as well as gained a better understanding of how effective sales coach indirectly affects a salesperson’s performance. We also identified different behaviors, preferences, and characteristics related to the salesperson that affect the sales coaching process.

The second essay is focused on the development and validation of a sales coaching effectiveness scale (SCES). We identified, measured and validated a three-factor, 16-item scale that reflect dimensions of effective sales coaches: involvement, rapport, and adaptability. The SCES scale is distinguished from previous coaching scales that were designed and validated in non-coaching contexts. The SCES scale offers benefits to practitioners and academics.

The third essay is focused on measuring how effective sales coaches affect sales performance. Drawing on self-determination theory, we proposed a dual-process model in which effective sales coaches influence performance through motivation and through sales development. One, the results suggested that effective sales coaches intrinsically (versus extrinsically) motivate salespeople to exert extra effort towards selling, which increases their overall sales performance. Two, the results suggested that effective sales coaches enhance the selling confidence among salespeople, which allows them to adapt their selling behaviors to various selling situations and buyers, thus increasing their overall sales performance.

Included in

Marketing Commons