Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Mathematics and Statistics

Major Professor

Sherwin Kouchekian, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Ali Passian, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Razvan Teodorescu, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Ivan Rothstein, Ph.D.


Stratied Toroidal Medium, Three Term Recurrence, Continued Fractions, Dispersion Relations, Infinite Determinants, Surface Modes, Field Distribution


Multilayered metallo-dielectric nanoparticles are increasingly considered in various applications to control the spatial and temporal behavior of electromagnetic fields. In particular, the surface mode excitation by photons or electrons in metal nanorings finds significant applications because of the implied field distribution and electromagnetic energy confinement. However, most solid nanorings that are multilayered and/or embedded in a medium have non-simply connected geometry resulting in surface modes which are not linearly independent. That is, unlike particle plasmon eigenmodes in other geometries, the amplitudes of the eigenmodes of tori exhibit a distinct forward and backward coupling. We investigate the surface modes of such toroidal nano-structures and obtain the canonical plasmon dispersion relations and resonance modes for arbitrarily layered nanorings. When seeking the nonretarded surface modes for a stratified solid torus, we obtain a three-term difference equation which plays an important role in obtaining the needed dispersion relations. The obtained dispersion relations are investigated in depth in terms of the involved matrix continued fractions and their convergence properties including their determinant forms for computing the plasmon eigenmodes. The numerical solutions of the dispersion relations in case of a solid ring are presented for comparison and the resonance frequencies for the first few dominant modes of a ring composed of plasmon supporting materials such as gold, silver, and aluminum are provided and compared to those for a silicon ring. The mode complementarity and hybridization in multilayered toroidal structures is discussed and different ring configurations are simulated in the quasistatic limit by selecting number of layers modeled by their local dielectric functions. A generalized Green’s function with derivation intricacies addressed for multilayer tori is obtained from which one may calculate and study the scattering behavior of any of the modes that may exist in the many layer system. In particular, the electric potential distribution corresponding to individual poloidal and toroidal modes in response to an arbitrarily polarized external field and the field of electrons is obtained. The results are applied to obtain the local density of states and decay rate of a dipole near the center of the torus. Finally, two new types of toroidal particles in the form of janus nanorings are introduced.