Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Curriculum and Instruction

Major Professor

Waynne James, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Jeffrey Kromrey, Ph.D.

Committee Member

William Young, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Edward Fletcher, Ph.D.


globalization, competencies, culture, Schwartz value theory


The purpose of this study was to explore perceived importance of cultural values and affective components in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and their relationships. This study identified which of the nine affective components of global competence and four higher order cultural values were perceived to be important in the MENA region. It also examined the correlations between cultural values and affective components and whether significant differences existed based on gender, age, and country of citizenship.

This research involved the combination of Wallenberg-Lerner’s Affective Component Questionnaire (ACQ) and Schwartz’s Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ). In conjunction with a demographic information form, the Affective Component Value Questionnaire (ACVQ) was developed. A panel of experts assisted in establishing the validity of the instrument.

All nine affective components were perceived to be important in this global era. Self-assurance, Tolerance for Ambiguity, and Connectedness were perceived to be the most important affective components of global competence, while the cultural value of Self-transcendence was recognized as the most important. Several positive correlations existed between three cultural values and eight affective components. The cultural value of Self-transcendence had the highest number of positive correlations with the seven affective components. Self-enhancement did not reveal any correlations.

Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the differences in perceptions based on age, gender, and country of citizenship. No significant differences were present in the perceptions of the affective components and the cultural values based on gender. Perceptions by age were similar for the affective components, but differed for the cultural values. MENA citizens between the ages of 18-25 years more highly regarded the cultural value of Openness to Change and the 46 years and older age group more highly regarded Conservation than the other groups. Perceptions by country of citizenship differed for the affective components, but were similar for the cultural values. Lebanon more highly regarded the affective components, of Adaptability and Empathy. Morocco more highly regarded Connectedness while Tunisia more highly regarded Curiosity.

The findings of this research could have a global benefit of raising the awareness and the integration of the MENA’s perceptions of global competencies into the areas of education, research, policy initiatives, and the private sector.