Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Medical Sciences

Major Professor

Srinivas Tipparaju, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Eric Bennett, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Denise Cooper, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Javier Cuevas, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Andreas Seyfang, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Vladimir Uversky, Ph.D.


Kvβ, redox regulation, Kv channel, heart, NADH, NAD, ECG


Heterologous expression systems such as COS-7 cells have demonstrated the profound effects of KCNAB1-3 or Kvβ1-3 proteins on voltage gated potassium channels (Kv) channels. Indeed, in the presence of these β-subunits transiently expressed Kv channels are often modulated in multiple ways. Kv channel membrane expression is often increased in the presence of β-subunits. In addition, non-inactivating Kv currents suddenly become fast-inactivating and fast-inactivating channels become even faster. While much research has demonstrated the profound effects the β-subunits in particular the Kvβ1 subunit have on transiently expressed Kv currents little to date is known of the physiological role it may play. One study demonstrated that by “knocking out” Kvβ1 cardiomyocyte current changes were noted including a decrease in the Ito,f current. While this novel finding demonstrated a key cardiac physiological role of the Kvβ1 subunit it left many unanswered questions as to determine the cardiovascular regulation the Kvβ1 subunit provides. Indeed, cardiac arrhythmias and other electrical abnormalities within the heart such as long QT present patients with many unfortunate unknowns. Many of these incidences occur often abruptly with cardiac electrical abnormalities. Genetic research has begun to shine light on key cardiovascular genes in particular those coding for ion channels and auxiliary subunits or β-subunits. Kv channels and their β-subunits have gained particular notoriety in their key responsibility in restoring the resting membrane potential known as the repolarization phase. Indeed genetic manipulation and physiological examination of Kv channels and recently their β-subunits has demonstrated profound physiological results including prolonged QT durations within mice altered functional activity during physiological cycles such as estrus. While initial findings of Kvβ1 have demonstrated profound cellular and cardiomyocyte current alterations much still remains unknown. Therefore, this work hypothesizes that the Kvβ1 subunit provides a profound cardiovascular role in regulation and redox sensing at the physiological and pathophysiological level in both males and females. This work identifies a sex-based difference in cardiovascular regulation by Kvβ1 as well as demonstrated a profound redox sensing ability during altered metabolic states seen in pathophysiological conditions.