Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Curriculum and Instruction

Major Professor

Bárbara C. Cruz Ed.D

Committee Member

James A. Duplass, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Cheryl Rodriguez, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Barbara Shircliffe, Ph.D.


African American History, Curriculum, Critical Race Theory, Social Studies


As education focuses increasingly on standards based assessment, social studies must be examined for its integration of Black History in the United States History curriculum. Using a Critical Race Theory lens, this directed content analysis attempts to examine the Florida Standards for United States History to determine if and how Black History is integrated into United States History courses. The study also makes use of Banks’ (1994) “levels of integration” to explore the degree to which this is accomplished. In addition, lesson plans created and/or endorsed by the state of Florida are analyzed for their inclusion of Black History. Data and analysis from this study demonstrate that while Black History is integrated to varying degrees across the K-12 United States History Florida Standards, the “levels of integration” (Banks, 1994) and topics covered do not offer a complete historical narrative. Similarly, while the lesson plans approved by the state of Florida often reflect a higher “level of integration” (Banks, 1994) and historical understanding, the limited topics of slavery and the Civil Rights Movement prevent students from seeing the development of Black History across the continuum of United States History. Further, the findings suggest that standards should be developed that directly address the role race and racism play in the development of the United States. These findings can be useful to both administrators and teachers looking to develop standards which help form an accurate historical understanding of the development of the United States. The study recommends that United States History courses and state standards in United States History focus on the role racism has played in developing the United States, include the voices of people of color, and focus on social justice in the United States History curriculum