Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Electrical Engineering

Major Professor

Zhixin Miao, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Tapas Das, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Lingling Fan, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Fangxing Li, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Wilfirido Moreno, Ph.D.


State Estimation, PMU, Kalman Filter, Second Order Conic Programming, Semi-Definite Programming Cut


The dissertation research investigates estimating of power system static and dynamic states (e.g. rotor angle, rotor speed, mechanical power, voltage magnitude, voltage phase angle, mechanical reference point) as well as identification of synchronous generator parameters. The research has two focuses:

i. Synchronous generator dynamic model states and parameters estimation using real-time PMU data.

ii.Integrate PMU data and conventional measurements to carry out static state estimation.

The first part of the work focuses on Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data-based synchronous generator states and parameters estimation. In completed work, PMU data-based synchronous generator model identification is carried out using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). The identification not only gives the states and parameters related to a synchronous generator swing dynamics but also gives the states and parameters related to turbine-governor and primary and secondary frequency control. PMU measurements of active power and voltage magnitude, are treated as the inputs to the system while voltage phasor angle, reactive power, and frequency measurements are treated as the outputs. UKF-based estimation can be carried out at real-time. Validation is achieved through event play back to compare the outputs of the simplified simulation model and the PMU measurements, given the same input data. Case studies are conducted not only for measurements collected from a simulation model, but also for a set of real-world PMU data. The research results have been disseminated in one published article.

In the second part of the research, new state estimation algorithm is designed for static state estimation. The algorithm contains a new solving strategy together with simultaneous bad data detection. The primary challenge in state estimation solvers relates to the inherent non-linearity and non-convexity of measurement functions which requires using of Interior Point algorithm with no guarantee for a global optimum solution and higher computational time. Such inherent non-linearity and non-convexity of measurement functions come from the nature of power flow equations in power systems.

The second major challenge in static state estimation relates to the bad data detection algorithm. In traditional algorithms, Largest Normalized Residue Test (LNRT) has been used to identify bad data in static state estimation. Traditional bad data detection algorithm only can be applied to state estimation. Therefore, in a case of finding any bad datum, the SE algorithm have to rerun again with eliminating found bad data. Therefore, new simultaneous and robust algorithm is designed for static state estimation and bad data identification.

In the second part of the research, Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) is used to improve solving technique for power system state estimator. However, the non-convex feasible constraints in SOCP based estimator forces the use of local solver such as IPM (interior point method) with no guarantee for quality answers. Therefore, cycle based SOCP relaxation is applied to the state estimator and a least square estimation (LSE) based method is implemented to generate positive semi-definite programming (SDP) cuts. With this approach, we are able to strengthen the state estimator (SE) with SOCP relaxation. Since SDP relaxation leads the power flow problem to the solution of higher quality, adding SDP cuts to the SOCP relaxation makes Problem’s feasible region close to the SDP feasible region while saving us from computational difficulty associated with SDP solvers. The improved solver is effective to reduce the feasible region and get rid of unwanted solutions violate cycle constraints. Different Case studies are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the method.

After introducing the new solving technique, a novel co-optimization algorithm for simultaneous nonlinear state estimation and bad data detection is introduced in this dissertation. ${\ell}_1$-Norm optimization of the sparse residuals is used as a constraint for the state estimation problem to make the co-optimization algorithm possible. Numerical case studies demonstrate more accurate results in SOCP relaxed state estimation, successful implementation of the algorithm for the simultaneous state estimation and bad data detection, and better state estimation recovery against single and multiple Gaussian bad data compare to the traditional LNRT algorithm.