Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

MS in Public Health (M.S.P.H.)

Degree Granting Department

Global Health

Major Professor

Robert Novak, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Benjamin Jacob, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Marianne Calnan

Committee Member

Mark Paris, M.D.


Tuberculosis, Diabetes Mellitus, Drug Resistant Tuberculosis


Background: Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) is considered a disease of the past but it remains a major cause of mortality among immune compromised patients and continues to be a significant threat to public health globally. Notably, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased over the years. The biological link of TB and DM has been reported in numerous literature with DM attributed to three folds increase in the risk of TB and linked to Drug Resistant TB, especially amongst aged diabetic patients. The aim of the study was to examine the distribution of DM among TB patients and explore the risk of Drug resistant TB in Diabetics infected with TB

Methods: The study employed a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive case based study involving 3638 patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB in the State of Florida, USA, 2009-2014. A comparative analysis of TB cases with DM and cases without DM adjusted for age was conducted. The risk of Drug resistant TB associated with DM was estimated through logistic regression analysis. Odds Ratios of TB/DM comorbidity were calculated and adjusted for Age using 5-year intervals from 40 years to above 70 years. Ninety-five percent (95%) confidence intervals were used and the accepted level of error was 0.05.

Results: There were 3836 cases of Pulmonary TB in Florida for the period of 2009-2014. The majority of cases (65%) were males and likely unemployed (59.1%). The prevalence of DM was 12 % but when adjusted for age the prevalence of DM was 3.9% amongst patients aged below 40 years and 16.7 % in patients aged above 40 years. An estimated 469 cases had TB/DM comorbidity (12.2%). The majority of TB/DM cases were above 40 years amongst the patients with DM, 44/469 (9.4%) had drug resistant TB and a majority were resistant to Rifampin. Population density did not influence the distribution of TB in this study.

Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus, Aging, and low immunity are linked with increased rates of progressing from latent TB infection to active disease. To achieve the goal of TB elimination it is important to fully understand and identify known TB comorbidities for proper diagnosis and early initiation to care. There is a positive correlation between high DM burden and increased TB prevalence. Therefore, it is recommended that prevention of DM, hyperglycemia and comprehensive management of DM be intensified to prevent TB, improve TB treatment outcomes and reduce the risk of drug resistant TB in Florida, USA.

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Epidemiology Commons