Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Electrical Engineering

Major Professor

Zhixin Miao, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Lingling Fan, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Rajesh Kavasseri, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Chung Seop Jeong,, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Yu Sun, Ph.D.


Distributed Control, Distributed Energy Resource, Consensus Theory, Impedance Modeling, Battery Energy Storage, Power Synchronization, Photovoltaic


Microgrid is an emerging technology in the eld of electrical engineering which employs the concept of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) in order to generate electricity in a small sized power system. The main objectives of this dissertation are to: 1- design a new control for lower level control of DERs in microgrids, 2- implement distributed upper level control for DERs in microgrids and 3- apply analytical approaches in order to analyze DERs in microgrids. The control in each DER can be divided into two main categories: lower and upper level. Lower level control is the main objective of control in each DER. For example, the lower level control in Photovoltaic (PV) is in charge of transferring the maximum power from sun into the main grid. Unlike the lower level control, the upper level control is an additional control loop on top of the lower level controls. For example, Voltage/Frequency (VF) controllers are installed on top of Active/Reactive (PQ) power controller in energy storage devices as upper level control. In this dissertation, for the lower level control improvements, two widely used DERs are selected (PV, and oshore wind farm) and new control algorithms are developed in order to improve the performance of lower level controllers in these DERs. For the PV lower level improvement, a new control methodology is proposed in order to minimize the maximum power tracking error in PV lower level controller. Second contribution in lower level control is for the oshore wind farm applications based on Multi-Terminal High Voltage Direct Current (MTDC) transmission; a new control is designed in order to minimize the losses in transmission lines through lower level control of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) converters.

For the upper level control, this dissertation considers the energy storage as another mostly used type of DER in microgrids. The lower level control for energy storage is in charge of controlling the PQ of the energy storage. The main contribution in the upper level control is to implement the distributed control algorithm based on consensus theory for battery energy storages in order to maximize the efficiency, energy management as well as synchronizing the performance of parallel energy storage devices in microgrids. In this case, the consensus based distributed control algorithm with limited information exchange between neighboring energy storage units is proposed and implemented to validate the claim.

The third contribution of this research is to apply advanced analysis techniques to evaluate the performance of the DERs in microgrids. Two approaches are introduced for microgrid modeling in this research. Firstly, an impedance modeling technique is used to model the oshore wind farm connected to the main AC grid through HVDC transmission line. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Nyquist analysis and singular value analysis are used to assess the interactions between HVDC converter and grid. Secondly, an unbalanced microgrid is considered and Dynamic Phasor (DP) analysis is applied in order to nd the stability limitations under different scenarios.

This dissertation has led to seven journal papers (five published, one journal in revision process and one journal submitted recently) and four conference papers.