Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Marina Bornovalova, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Eva Kimonis, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Mark Goldman, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Tiina Ojanen, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Christopher Patrick, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Vicky Phares, Ph.D.


psychopathic traits, factor interactions, personality, assessment


Psychopathy is a maladaptive personality disorder associated with a host of negative outcomes, including criminal behavior, psychopathology, and self-harm. Factor 1 (F1) and Factor 2 (F2) psychopathy show differential associations with psychopathology. However, evidence suggests that the statistical interaction of F1 and F2 may be more important in understanding associations with psychopathology. Findings regarding the interactive effects of F1 and F2 are mixed, as both potentiating and protective effects have emerged. Moreover, there is only scant research exploring the statistical impact of gender on these interactive effects. Furthermore, approaches to measuring F1 (e.g. clinical interview versus self-report) are based on different conceptualizations of F1, which may influence the strength and direction of the interactive effects. Study 1 aims to explore the influence of F1 and F2 on psychopathology by using both person-centered and variable-centered approaches on a sample of over 1,500 offenders. Study 2 seeks to replicate these findings among 227 drug users and 234 college students. Across analytic methods in Study 1, there were very cases in which F1 influenced the association between F2 and psychopathology, and there were no significant three-way gender interactions. Furthermore, the conceptualization of F1 across psychopathy measures did not impact the interactive effects of F1 and F2. Similar findings emerged in Study 2. These findings suggest that F2 is likely driving the relations between psychopathy and other forms of psychopathology, and that F1 plays less of a role in interacting with F2 than previously believed.

Included in

Psychology Commons