Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)

Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Kwang-Sun Cho Blair, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Heather Peshak-George, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Rose Iovannone, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kimberly Crosland, Ph.D.


response cards, student response systems, class-wide intervention, classroom management


This study examined the relative impact of two different question types (multiple choice and short answer) on individual student behavior when using response cards and the potential role of teacher preference as it pertained to question type. Using an alternating treatments design across participants, the study focused on identifying the type of question that was more effective in reducing disruptive behavior and increasing academic engagement and correct response when using response cards and investigated whether implementation of teacher preferred question type enhanced student behavioral outcomes. The results indicated that response cards effectively decreased disruptive behavior and increased academic engagement and correct responses in all four participating students. However, changes in the students’ behavior and performance did not differ between question types. The results also indicated that implementation of the teacher preferred question type further decreased disruptive behavior across students.