Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

MS in Public Health (M.S.P.H.)

Degree Granting Department

Public Health

Major Professor

Marie Bourgeois, Ph.D.

Co-Major Professor

Giffe Johnson, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Raymond D. Harbison, Ph.D.


H9c2(2-1), Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase, Cytotoxicity, Acrolein


Acrolein is an electrophilic α, β-unsaturated aldehyde. Additionally, acrolein is a metabolite of the antineoplastic alkylating agent cyclophosphamide and is implicated in off-target effects, including to bladder hemorrhagic cystitis and cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity, both of which have led to serious secondary iatrogenic injury during and following chemotherapy. At low concentrations acrolein inhibits cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis, while at high concentrations may result in secondary apoptosis promotion. This investigation assessed the role of the enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in acrolein induced toxicity using the established toxicological H9c2 (2-1) cardiomyoblast in vitro model. H9c2 (2-1) cells were plated in 24-well plates at 75,000 cells per well three days prior to testing, followed by acrolein dosing at concentrations between 10 µM and 1000µM for either 30 or 55 minutes. PARP activity was quantitatively measured in total cell lysates using a biotin-avidin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase-TMB reporter system in a 96-well microplate formate. The lowest effective dose of toxicity at 30 minute dosing was found at 25 μM (PARP Activity 1.65-fold control) which returned to baseline at 100 μM; concentrations at or above 250 μM results in significant PARP activity reductions (≤ 0.46-fold control). Biomarkers were further characterized for cytotoxicity (AST presence), and viability (MTT reduction) in order to facilitate mechanistic characterization of PARP-mediated acrolein cardiotoxicity. Investigation of a PARP inhibitor was assessed to explore the intervention for acrolein induced cardiac tissue damage.

Included in

Toxicology Commons