Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Biomedical Engineering

Major Professor

William E. Lee III, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Charles Nofsinger, M.D.

Committee Member

Zong-Ping Luo, Ph.D.


Sawbones®, Failure testing, Gap formation, Valgus stability, Ultimate strength


The objective of this thesis is to biomechanically evaluate a novel Double bundle technique for UCL reconstruction designed to accelerate recovery time and minimize gap formation. Excluding UCL surgery, ligament reconstruction procedures typically require an average of 6 months of recovery time. UCL reconstructive surgery requires approximately 1-2 years of recovery time. Valgus instability of the elbow is characterized by attenuation, or frank rupture of the UCL from repetitive and excessive valgus loads. This research compared the valgus stability, gap formation, and ultimate strength that resulted from the cyclic valgus loading at 30 ° of flexion of 3 techniques for reconstruction of the UCL: the Jobe, Docking, and a novel Double bundle procedure.

A servocontrolled materials testing machine applied a cyclic valgus load to white cortical Sawbones elbow complex models while a 3D electromagnetic motion tracking system recorded the valgus displacement of the UCL reconstructions. The valgus stability, gap formation, and ultimate strength were measured at 50, 100, 200 and 600 cycles or the cycle at which failure occurred. The mean peak load to failure was 30N for the Jobe reconstructions, and 50N for both the Docking and Double bundle reconstructions. Both the Docking and the Double bundle reconstructions sustained a higher load to failure than the Jobe reconstruction. None of the separate univariate ANOVAs of the biomechanical parameters of each reconstruction were statistically significant. Although there was no statistically significant difference, a small standard deviation in all measured values indicated consistency in testing methodology. The power or sample size is not high enough to state with confidence that statistically there is no difference.