Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

MS in Public Health (M.S.P.H.)

Degree Granting Department

Global Health

Major Professor

Robert Novak, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Benjamin Jacob, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Dave Chadee, Ph.D.


Malaria, Anopheles, Urban Agriculture, Ecology


To meet the rising food demands of communities in Accra,Ghana, urban agriculture has been popularized as a way to increase food security and improve nutrition (Donovan et al., 2012). Urban agriculture is defined as "the cultivation of crops at both the subsistence and commercial levels including the keeping of livestock in open spaces in urban areas (Adjaye, n.d.). In Accra, urban agriculture covers 1,091 hectares, employs over one thousand people, and supplies residents with 90% of its vegetables ("Accra Metropolitan", n.d.). Further, 60% of households in Accra participate in backyard farming ("Accra Metropolitan", n.d.). Although urban agriculture provides many benefits for communities in Accra, it has been linked to the creation of suitable habitats for Anopheles gambiae complex larvae.

In Accra, a spatio-temporal distribution of An. gambiae complex larvae and larvae habitats has not been established. A larval study in two urban agriculture and two non-urban agriculture sites was conducted in the months of May, July, August, and September 2014. When combined together, 3,807 An. gambiae complex larvae were collected from the urban agriculture sites of Korle Bu and Opeibea over the period of the study. When combining the urban non-agriculture sites of Madina and Ashaiman, 2,484 An. gambiae complex larvae were collected over the same period. The results of this study in Accra show that Korle Bu, an urban agriculture site, was the most productive site, with 2,604 An. gambiae complex larvae collected for the months of May, July, August, and September. July was the most productive month for Korle Bu, with 1,653 An. gambiae complex larvae collected. Further investigations of An. gambiae complex larval habitats are necessary to better understand malaria transmission attributes unique to Accra, Ghana.

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