Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Civil and Environmental Engineering

Major Professor

Abdul Rawoof Pinjari, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Qing Lu, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Yu Zhang, Ph.D.


activity participation, MDCEV model, multinomial logit model, Stochastic frontier model, vehicle type/vintage


This thesis compares different approaches to estimating budgets for Kuhn-Tucker (KT) demand systems, more specifically for the multiple discrete-continuous extreme value (MDCEV) model. The approaches tested include: (1) The log-linear regression approach (2) The stochastic frontier regression approach, and (3) arbitrarily assumed budgets that are not necessarily modeled as a function of decision maker characteristics and choice-environment characteristics.

The log-linear regression approach has been used in the literature to model the observed total expenditure as way of estimating budgets for the MDCEV models. This approach allows the total expenditure to depend on the characteristics of the choice-maker and the choice environment. However, this approach does not offer an easy way to allow the total expenditure to change due to changes in choice alternative-specific attributes, but only allows a reallocation of the observed total expenditure among the different choice alternatives. To address this issue, we propose the stochastic frontier regression approach. The approach is useful when the underlying budgets driving a choice situation are unobserved, but only the expenditures on the choice alternatives of interest are observed. The approach is based on the notion that consumers operate under latent budgets that can be conceived (and modeled using stochastic frontier regression) as the maximum possible expenditure they are willing to incur.

To compare the efficacy of the above-mentioned approaches, we performed two empirical assessments: (1) The analysis of out-of-home activity participation and time-use (with a budget on the total time available for out-of-home activities) for a sample of non-working adults in Florida, and (2) The analysis of household vehicle type/vintage holdings and usage (with a budget on the total annual mileage) for a sample of households in Florida. A comparison of the MDCEV model predictions (based on budgets from the above mentioned approaches) demonstrates that the log-linear regression approach and the stochastic frontier approach performed better than arbitrarily assumed budgets approaches. This is because both approaches consider heterogeneity in budgets due to socio-demographics and other explanatory factors rather than arbitrarily imposing uniform budgets on all consumers. Between the log-linear regression and the stochastic frontier regression approaches, the log-linear regression approach resulted in better predictions (vis-à-vis the observed distributions of the discrete-continuous choices) from the MDCEV model. However, policy simulations suggest that the stochastic frontier approach allows the total expenditures to either increase or decrease as a result of changes in alternative-specific attributes. While the log-linear regression approach allows the total expenditures to change as a result of changes in relevant socio-demographic and choice-environment characteristics, it does not allow the total expenditures to change as a result of changes in alternative-specific attributes.