Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Cynthia R. Cimino, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Theresa Chisolm, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Emanuel Donchin, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Paul Jacobsen, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kevin Thompson, Ph.D.


event related potentials, expectancy violation, feedback, Holroyd model, response compensation


A model proposed by Holroyd and Coles (2002) stating that error related negativity (ERN) is caused by a decrease in mesencephalic dopamine output to the ACC was tested. A group of individuals with Parkinson's disease (N = 16) and an age and education matched group free from neurological disorder (N = 16) completed a card guessing task where the magnitude of monetary penalties and rewards for incorrect and correct answers was varied by block. Individuals with Parkinson's disease were tested after an overnight washout from dopamingeric medications.

The amplitude of the mid-frontal negativity elicited by feedback was analyzed with spatial and temporal principal components analyses. Dipole source analyses were also performed. Analyses revealed no significant differences in the mid-frontal negativity amplitude between the two groups. In addition, the magnitude of consequence and the validity of response had no significant effects on fERN amplitude although there was a trend for higher magnitude consequences to be associated with larger fERN amplitude. Dipole analyses indicated the source of the mid-frontal negativity fell into the cingulate, specifically the cingulate gyrus. The results suggest that the mid-frontal negativity elicited by feedback indicating an error was made remains intact in individuals with Parkinson's disease. This does not support predictions made by Holroyd and Coles' model in regard to this group unless disruptions to the system that produces the fERN do not occur until later stages in the disease. An additional finding was a late positive potential for the error trials which began approximately 450 milliseconds after feedback and continued throughout the epoch. The ramifications of this wave are discussed.