Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Kwang-Sun Cho Blair


Behavior Education Plan (BEP), Daily Report Card (DRC), multi-tiered system of supports, School-wide Positive Behavior Support, secondary intervention, targeted intervention


A multi-tiered system of supports offers a comprehensive model for the prevention of academic and behavior problems in schools. To date, research has emphasized the impact of universal and intensive interventions. However, the need for research on secondary or targeted group interventions (Tier 2) for those students who do not respond to the universal level of support is growing. This study evaluated CICO, a Tier 2 intervention, in improving student behavior when it is used with three elementary students from a high-need population and in conjunction with student accountability tracking, designed to promote parental involvement. Functional assessments indicated that all three students had attention-maintained problem behavior during instruction sessions. The study employed a concurrent multiple baseline design across students to assess the effects of CICO and CICO with accountability tracking on academic engagement and problem behavior. Results indicated that the team members were able to implement CICO with fidelity and their implementation of the intervention was effective in increasing academic engagement and reducing problem behavior. The CICO with accountability tracking implementation with one student contributed to further improvement of his target behaviors. These effects were shown to be maintained moderately well for two students who underwent fading. Results are discussed in terms of the study limitations and implications for practice and future research.