Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Paul E. Spector


active, direct, indirect, passive, physical, verbal


The purpose of the current study was to categorize workplace aggression into nine subtypes based on human aggression and workplace aggression literature, and to examine gender differences in engaging in these subtypes of workplace aggression. Data collected from 366 employed students showed that a significant gender difference was found only in direct workplace aggression and there were no gender differences in the other eight workplace aggression subtypes; verbal, direct, and passive workplace aggression was more frequently used than physical, indirect and active workplace aggression, respectively. Data collected from 83 employee-supervisor pairs showed that compared to supervisors' reports, female employees' self-reports tended to be higher in all eight subtypes of workplace aggression (relational workplace aggression was excluded), while male employees' self-reports were only higher in passive workplace aggression than their supervisors' reports. Male supervisors were found to report more subordinates' verbal, direct, active, and interpersonal workplace aggression than female supervisors, and male employees were reported by their immediate supervisors to engage in more active workplace aggression. Implications, limitations and conclusions were discussed.

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