Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Edward Turos


Amino acid., Ciprofloxacin,, Dual-Action drug, Fatty acid biosynthesis, MRSA, N-Thiolated β-Lactam


The Turos laboratory has been working with N-thiolated β-lactams for years trying to understand the mode of action and structural features it needs to have biological activity. Over the years new data has shown promising inhibitory activity against various microbes.

In this dissertation, a review of the vast amount of work carried out on N-thiolated β-lactams in Turos laboratory has been done and their novelty, in terms of structure and mechanism has been discussed. A complete outline of our work in the discovery and ongoing development of these compounds, starting from our initial, unexpected finding of antimicrobial activity for one of the lead compounds, to a more complete understanding of their chemical and biological mode of action and potential utility as antibacterial compounds, has been provided.

Previous researches by graduate students in the Turos laboratory have shown that N-thiolated β-lactams targets Type II Fatty Acid Synthesis (FAS). In process of understanding this further, other FAS inhibiting antibiotics like Triclosan were compared to our lactams by adding excess of exogenous fatty acids. Results revealed vast differences in the MIC value of triclosan and N-thiolated β-lactams, giving an idea that there might be a different mode of action or a different target altogether.

The third chapter discusses the study of attaching hydrophilic C3 side chains like amino acids and carbohydrates on N-thiolated β-lactams while studying the influence of microbiological activity. From the study it was found that the lengthening of the side chain halts the inhibitory activity regardless of whether the side chain contains unsaturation or branching. Results showed that polar groups were not well tolerated and the inhibitory activity goes down regardless of polarity.

Finally, research on dual-action antibiotics was discussed. Antibiotics cause continuous bacterial resistance and in this aspect use of two drugs with different mode of action can call for reduction of the resistance. Herein, N-acyl ciprofloxacin and N-thiolated β-lactams were connected together via an ester linkage. Six new hybrid compounds have been synthesized successfully and tested against E. faecium, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. cloacae.