Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Raymond G. Miltenberger


coach, feedback, pool, reporting accuracy, sports


The current study evaluated the effects of self-monitoring by swimmers to improve their performance at practice and assessed the effects of reactivity to observer presence on their performance. Additionally, it investigated the accuracy of the swimmers' self-reports. Seven public high school swim team members used program boards to self-monitor in order to increase the number of assigned laps completed at practice. Reactivity to observer presence was assessed by having a confederate record the number of laps completed during observer absent conditions. A series of AB replications and an ABAB reversal design were used. The percentage of assigned laps completed increased during the self-monitoring phases. The self-monitoring and feedback phase showed an additional increase in the percentage of assigned laps completed, and also showed an increase in the mean level of reporting accuracy by the participants. The effects from the reactivity assessment were mixed; the percentage of assigned laps completed was lower on days that the observer was absent compared to the days the observer is present for only some of the participants. More research is needed to examine reactivity effects in sport settings.