Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Psychological and Social Foundations

Major Professor

Carlos Zalaquett, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Herbert Exum, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Debbie Osborn, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Liliana Rodriguez-Campos, Ph.D.


Empathy, Participant Roles, Racial Attitudes, Teacher Preparation


Bullying is a persistent problem that negatively affects the academic performance, and the psychological, social, and emotional well-being of targeted students. Research indicates most bullying is prejudice-based. Bullying and prejudice reduction interventions used in school systems encourage empathy towards the target student to reduce these behaviors, and current national and international interventions recommend focusing on bullies, targets (or victims), and bystanders. Interventions are conducted by individuals (trainers) trained to implement such programs, a model known as train-the-trainer. Teachers and pre-education majors usually volunteer to become trainers. Effectiveness of interventions may depend on the trainees' knowledge, empathy, and adherence to the program. Research reports that the impact of the training on the trainer significantly impacts its implementation and effectiveness. Yet, the impact of the training on the trainer is rarely the focus of research. The Bullying Amongst Diverse Populations (BADP) training was conducted to study its impact on the trainees. The results show the BADP training had an overall positive impact on participants' knowledge of and skills to respond to situations involving bullying and prejudice, sense of efficacy, and likelihood to intervene. Pre- and post-test assessments demonstrate reductions on prejudicial attitudes and increments in participants' defender roles. Implications for future research are discussed and implications for university and K-12 administrators, counselor educators, school counselors, and program coordinators of teacher education programs are also reviewed.