Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Global Health

Major Professor

Lillian Stark, Ph.D.

Co-Major Professor

Azliyati Azizan, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Dennis Kyle, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Wilbur Milhous, Ph.D.


cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, protozoan, wastewater filtration, wastewater treatment


The concern of a Cryptosporidium or Giardia waterborne outbreak due to treated wastewater has had water treatment utilities using some of the highest water cleansing technologies available. Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis are severe diarrheal diseases which can lead to death, thus it is important that appropriate steps are taken to assure these parasites are not present in the effluent of treated wastewater. This study examined the results of 863 assays for Giardia and Cryptosporidium on the effluent of wastewater treatment facilities and found that county of collection, watershed of collection, and laboratory analyzing the sample have the most significant impact on the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in wastewater effluent and that there were minimal but significant differences in method of treatment and method of filtration. To date no other comprehensive analysis of this data has been done.