Graduation Year


Document Type

Ed. Specalist



Degree Granting Department

Psychological and Social Foundations

Major Professor

Harold Keller, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Lisa M. Lopez, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Robert Dedrick, Ph.D.


Hispanic, Latino, reading, bilingual, achievement


This study explored how language, emergent literacy, and reading skills in both English and Spanish develop with a group of English language learners (ELLs) (n = 267). Specifically, the researcher investigated what early language and literacy skills were the most important predictors of reading abilities as indicated by the Book Task in prekindergarten through first grade. Early language and literacy skills were assessed utilizing subtest from the Woodcock Language Proficiency Batter - Revised, the Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery - Revised - Spanish Form and the Phonological Awareness Task. Participants came from households where Spanish was one of the languages spoken. Multiple linear regression and path analyses were utilized to reveal the importance of each predictor variable during each grade level. Results indicated that vocabulary, listening comprehension, letter-word recognition, and phonological awareness are the most important predictors throughout the grade levels. These results are discussed in terms of their potential implications for research and practice with ELLs.