Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Applied Behavior Analysis

Major Professor

Jennifer L. Austin, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Darrel Bostow, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kathy Bradley-Klug, Ph.D.


academic behavior, teaching, active student responding, education


Previous research has examined the effects of response card use at various grades levels including elementary, middle, high school, and community college. These studies provide convincing evidence that incorporating response cards into group instruction helps improve learning outcomes. However, the majority of these studies focused solely on learning outcomes, typically assessed through the administration of tests and/or quizzes. The present study examined the effects of response cards on learning, and expanded the research by assessing effects on disruptive student behavior and the quantity and quality of interactions between teachers and students. A second grade teacher and two students were exposed to response cards in an alternating treatments design. Results showed increased positive responding from both teachers and students during response card sessions. However, inappropriate student behavior and negative teacher comments also increased during response card classes. This study provides preliminary evidence that active responding strategies can increase the amount of positive interactions between teachers and students.