Graduation Year


Document Type

Ed. Specalist



Degree Granting Department

Psychological and Social Foundations

Major Professor

Linda Raffaele Mendez, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kelly A. Powell-Smith, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Robert Dedrick, Ph.D.


Intervention, Program Evaluation, Computer Assisted Instruction, Elementary School Students, Phonemes


The current study examined the effects of two computer-delivered phonological awareness training programs (Earobics Step 1 and Lexia Early Reading) on the early literacy skills of kindergarten and first grade students at risk for reading failure. The study utilized a multi-group pretest-treatment-posttest design. Student participants, who were identified for the study through a school-wide screening, were randomly assigned to one of three groups (i.e., Earobics, Lexia Early Reading, or control), and their progress was monitored throughout a five-week intervention period. Results using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to examine differences in adjusted mean post-test scores indicated that the Earobics program produced better outcomes than the Lexia and control groups as measured by the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills. Results of a hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis examining initial status and rates of growth also indicated greater rates of change among the Earobics group when compared with the Lexia and control groups. The Earobics program was shown to be an effective intervention for improving early literacy skills for students at risk for reading failure. Implications of the study for working with early elementary students who show deficits in phonological awareness are discussed.