Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Brent R. Weisman, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kevin Yelvington, D.Phil.

Committee Member

Beverly Ward, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Philip Levy, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Antoinette T. Jackson, Ph.D.


archaeology, African Caribbean, grassroots, permits


This dissertation research is the study of cultural resource management initiatives and

the extent to which archaeological surveys and excavations include or exclude African

Caribbean contemporary and historic communities, throughout these processes. Varying

types of archaeological sites identified by archaeologists, along with community

inclusionary measures are examined to determine as to the degree to which

archaeological surveys and excavations are reflective of historic and contemporary

African Caribbean communities.

Data were collected through archival research, interviews and surveys and analyzed

qualitatively to examine the degree to which stakeholders, particularly those who have

been historically marginalized, have been incorporated into these processes. It was

anticipated that changes in nationalistic identities and the emergence of an African

Caribbean middle class would bring about a shift in the focus of cultural resource

management initiatives, away from those associated with colonialist Europeans and

Americans towards those associated with African Caribbean communities. A

comprehensive examination of economic, political, social and cultural conditions

provides the framework for an examination of historic and contemporary factors that

have influenced the emergence of African Caribbean middle class communities.

The data suggest that shifts in cultural resource management initiatives do occur as

African Caribbean middle classes emerge from European colonialist societies. However,

in some cases, the emergence of this middle class has been delayed. The data also

suggest that archaeological surveys and excavations are still conducted without

comprehensive community inclusionary measures or the inclusion of aspects of

community based site significance. History, memory, and identity are key components of

community-based concepts of tangible resources and as indicated in this study, differ

greatly from resources as defined historically by colonialist and currently by