Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Civil and Environmental Engineering

Major Professor

Jian J. Lu, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Chanyoung Lee, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Abdul R. Pinjari, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Yu Zhang, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Javier Cuevas, Ph.D.


Geometric Characteristics, Variables, Ordered Probit Model, Negative Binomial Model, Marginal Effects


The main role of roadway lighting is to produce quick, accurate and comfortable visibility during nighttime conditions. It is commonly known that good lighting levels enable motorists, pedestrians and bicyclists to obtain necessary visual information in an effective and efficient manner. Many previous studies also proved that roadway lighting minimizes the likelihood of crashes by providing better visibility for roadway users.

Appropriate and adequate roadway lighting illuminance levels for each roadway classification and pedestrian areas are essential to provide safe and comfortable usage. These levels are usually provided by national, or local standards and guidelines. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Plan Preparation Manual recommends a roadway lighting illuminance level average standard of 1.0 horizontal foot candle (fc) for all the roadway segments used in this research. The FDOT Plan Preparation Manual also states that this value should be considered standard, but should be increased if necessary to maintain an acceptable uniformity illuminance ratio.

This study aimed to find the relationship between nighttime crash injury severity and roadway lighting illuminance. To accomplish this, the research team analyzed crash data and roadway lighting illuminance measured in roadway segments within the West Central Florida Region. An Ordered Probit Model was developed to understand the relationship between roadway lighting illuminance levels and crash injury severity. Additionally, a Negative Binomial Model was used to determine which roadway lighting illuminance levels can be more beneficial in reducing the counts of crashes resulting in injuries.

A comprehensive literature review was conducted using longitudinal studies with and without roadway lighting. Results showed that on the same roadways there was a significant decrease in the number of nighttime crashes with the presence of roadway lighting. In this research, roadway lighting illuminance was measured every 40 feet using an Advanced Lighting Measurement System (ALMS) on a total of 245 centerline miles of roadway segments within the West Central Florida Region. The data were mapped and then analyzed using the existing mile post.

During the process of crash data analysis, it was observed that rear-end collisions were the most common first harmful event observed in all crashes, regardless of the lighting conditions. Meanwhile, the average injury severity for all crashes, was found to be possible injury regardless of the lighting conditions (day, dark, dusk, and dawn).

Finally, this research presented an Ordered Probit Model, developed to understand the existing relationship between roadway lighting illuminance levels and injury severity within the West Central Florida Region. It was observed that having a roadway lighting average moving illuminance range between 0.4 to 0.6 foot candles (fc) was more likely to have a positive effect in reducing the probability of injury severity during a nighttime crash. A Negative Binomial Model was conducted to determine if the roadway lighting average moving illuminance level, found on the Ordered Probit Model was beneficial in reducing crash injury severity during nighttime, would also be beneficial in reducing the counts of crashes resulting in injuries. It was observed that a roadway lighting average moving illuminance, range between 0.4 to 0.6 fc, was more likely to reduce the count of crashes resulting in injuries during nighttime conditions, thus increasing roadway safety. It was also observed that other factors such as pavement condition, site location (intersection or no intersection), number of lanes, and traffic volume can affect the severity and counts of nighttime crashes.

The results of this study suggest that simply adding more roadway lighting does not make the roadway safer. The fact is that a reduction in the amount of roadway lighting illuminance can produce savings in energy consumption and help the environment by reducing light pollution. Moreover, these results show that designing roadway lighting systems go beyond the initial design process, it also requires continuous maintenance. Furthermore, regulations for new developments and the introduction of additional lighting sources near roadway facilities (that are not created with the intent of being used for roadway users) need to be created.