Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Jamie Goldenberg, Ph.D.

Co-Major Professor

Tiina Ojanen, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jennifer Bosson, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kristen Salomon, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Brent Small, Ph.D.


: Ostracism, Aggression, Self-Esteem, Exclusion Typicality, Self-Regulation


Being excluded should motivate pro-social behaviors. Yet, exclusion can incite aggressive and anti-social responses. Two studies were conducted to examine how frequent experiences of exclusion impact self-esteem, perceptions that exclusion is typical of social experiences, and anti-social behaviors. In Study 1, participants completed pre and post-measures of exclusion typicality and self-esteem and reported, over eight weeks, feelings of exclusion and state self-esteem. Results supported the hypotheses in that experiences feeling excluded have direct and indirect effects on state and trait self-esteem as well as on exclusion typicality. In Study 2, participants were exposed to an exclusion manipulation and subsequent aggressive and anti-social behaviors were assessed. Results were inconsistent with hypotheses that exclusion typicality and self-esteem would moderate responses to exclusion. Discussion focuses on the implications for a model of exclusion elicited anti-social behaviors.