Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Electrical Engineering

Major Professor

Don L. Morel, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Christos Ferekides, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Andrew Hoff, Ph.D.


Kesterite, Bandgap, Diffusion, XRD, Characterization


Because of the anticipated high demand for Indium, ongoing growth of CIGS technology may be limited. Kesterite materials, which replace In with a Zn/Sn couple, are thought to be a solution to this issue. However, efficiencies are still below the 10% level, and these materials are proving to be complex. Even determination of the bandgap is not settled because of the occurrence of secondary phases. We use a film growth process, 2SSS, which we believe helps control the formation of secondary phases. Under the right growth conditions we find 1/1 Zn/Sn ratios and XRD signatures for Cu2ZnSnSe4 with no evidence of secondary phases. The optical absorption profile of our films is also a good match to the CIS profile even for films annealed at 500° C. We see no evidence of phase separation. The effect of intentional variation of the Zn/Sn ratio on material and device properties is also presented.