Degree Granting Department
Nathan Gallant, Ph.D.
Rasim Guldiken, Ph.D.
Nathan Crane, Ph.D.
3-APTMS, Bcl-2 Protein, ODMS, Pluronic, Protein A/G
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women in United States and has an alarming 1.4% (1 in 71) lifetime risk. The lack of overt symptoms and the absence of a reliable screening test to detect ovarian cancer result in over 70% of women being diagnosed after the disease has spread beyond the ovary resulting in a poor prognosis. A key characteristic of ovarian cancer is the ability of tumor cells to evade apoptosis, or programmed cell death contributing to the limitless replicative potential, which is a hallmark of all carcinogenesis. There is conclusive evidence that levels of bcl-2 are elevated in ovarian cancer patients‟ indication that this protein is an ovarian cancer biomarker. The overall goal of this thesis is to functionalize a substrate for specific, sensitive and cost-effective bcl-2 capture. This surface will ultimately be incorporated into an acoustic wave-based diagnostic device for worldwide point-of-care (POC) ovarian cancer detection.
This research looks to assess the capture of this analyte protein on a series of bioconjugated surfaces. For the research to be diagnostically applicable, certain factors reveal themselves as more important than others. Since the surface-bound capture antibody must recognize the bcl-2 protein, it is vital to ensure upright orientation of this specific antibody with high affinity for the analyte. Furthermore once integrated with a nanosensor, the surface will sense a change in the mass on the surface, which requires that the surface is highly resistant to non-specific binding. Bioconjugation techniques were employed to initiate self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of silanes, immobilize antibodies (via amine-crosslinking or direct adsorption of protein A/G) and disperse polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents to reduce non-specific binding on the glass substrates. 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-APTMS) and chlorodimethyloctylsilane (ODMS) were deposited on the surface to create initial hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties on which molecular self-assembly could occur. Testing a variety of assemblies with and without the presence of silanes, amine-crosslinking and PEGylation reagents, the substrate displaying the highest efficacy of bcl-2 capture was revealed. These various surfaces were assessed through contact angle and a novel sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for sensitivity and specificity of bcl-2 standard capture.
The consistently low background and facile assembly of the ODMS based substrate with direct adsorption of protein A/G and the PEGylation reagent, Pluronic, was deemed the „best‟ functionalized surface for non-specific recruitment of the bcl-2 protein. The substrate also consistently displayed low signal-to-noise ratio which was of extreme importance in this research to guarantee the prevention of false-positive results when detecting nascent carcinogenic behavior. Elucidation of this substrate assembly is the first step towards the long term objective of this thesis, which is to construct a cost-effective early ovarian cancer detection device which can be implemented at the point-of-care to those who need it the most. This is ultimately expected to dramatically improve health outcomes for females worldwide.
Scholar Commons Citation
Ahmad, Asad Ali, "Surface Functionalization and Analysis Thereof for an Ovarian Cancer Diagnostic Biosensor" (2011). Graduate Theses and Dissertations.