Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Applied Behavior Analysis

Major Professor

Trevor F. Stokes, Ph.D.


Elementary school, Incident reports, Behavioral program, Teacher training, Outcomes


The study conducted was an archival review of school detailed incident discipline records and description of the school-wide proactive discipline plan developed at an elementary school. The study examined the effects of sequential changes in a proactive school-wide discipline plan. Initially, the baseline data consisted of a full year of school without a proactive school-wide discipline plan. This allowed an assessment of the variation in referrals that occurred across a school year. Subsequent years were assessed in relation to this baseline, and the effects from year to year compared to other years. After the baseline year, substantial changes were made by implementing a school-wide proactive program. In later years, variations were made in the school-wide proactive plan that improved its delivery efficiency. The changes were not major changes but were variations of the original intervention program. Thus, this was a program evaluation on a school-wide basis, incorporating multiple nonconcurrent time series essentially forming an A -- B design with maintenance of improvements under conditions which varied slightly from year to year. The data revealed a higher rate of incidents among ESE and Pre ESE students (students who were later staffed into an ESE program) students then their basic education peers in the primary grades. The data revealed that while the support decreased over time the school-wide mean of incidents increased. The data did not show any decreases in behaviors which would be described of low impact, and there was not a decrease in incidents which would be described as high impact over the course of the evaluation. This study showed that continued behavioral support for teachers may be needed for decreases in incidents over time as well as a possible need to increase attention to students who are at risk behaviorally in order to intervene prior to an ESE placement.