Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Paul E. Spector, Ph.D.


Individualism, Collectivism, Multi-dimensional, Factor analysis, Culture, Cross-cultural, Scale development


Fundamental to the debate of culture and its impact is the identification of the dimensions that comprise it. The impact of culture as an explanatory variable can be found in various social, scientific, and economic arenas, such as social perception, economic development, and the organization of industries and companies. By identifying and measuring these dimensions, researchers can then organize cultures empirically and develop complex descriptions of various cultures. The study aimed to test the structure of the dimensions proposed by Ho and Chiu (1994) by means of scale development. Test-item writers involved psychology graduate students of various nationalities with the purpose of addressing reliability issues of previous measures by virtue of increased content breadth. The study also aimed to investigate the notion that cultural tendencies vary by dimension across geographical regions. Phase-I factor analysis results indicated that a 5-factor solution (responsibility, affiliation, social welfare, religion, and achievement) should be retained. Phase-II involved administering the scale to an international and American student sample that formed the basis for group comparisons. The results for the group comparisons were illuminating, providing evidence for the conceptualization of individualism and collectivism as worldviews and that the groups varied in their worldview depending on the pertinent dimension being measured. Implications for organizational research are discussed within the framework of linking individualism and collectivism to workplace variables. This study hopes to spur further empirical research in the area to catch up with the progressing theoretical development through expanded cultural dimensions, theory refinement, determining the process(es) by which cultural factors are linked to work behaviors, and uncover the various areas of applicability and research.