Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Interdisciplinary Education

Major Professor

George Batsche, Ed.D.


PBS, Classroom-level, School discipline, Key features, Teachers


This purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the presence of classroom components of positive behavior support and student behavior outcomes. Data were collected using the Tool for Assessing Classroom Level-Positive Behavior Support (TACL-PBS) developed by Ern (2004) to assess the presence or absence of critical components of positive behavior support at the classroom level. Descriptive data on the instrument including the internal consistency, interrater agreement, and concurrent validity were analyzed and are included in this report. Forty classrooms from ten diverse elementary schools in three school districts were selected to participate in this study. Office discipline referral (ODR) information and rates of on-task behavior were collected for each classroom and were correlated with the presence of the classroom components. Data were collected using teacher interview, student interview, and direct observation methods. In all, 40 teacher intervie

ws, 116 student interviews, and 39 classroom observations were conducted as part of this study and the information was used to provide evidence of the presence or absence of classroom PBS components. Given that the TACL-PBS uses three independent methods for data collection, the study was also interested in the usefulness of each method. The data revealed that the correlational structure of the instrument is strongest when scores from all three methods are combined. Results indicated low to moderate correlations between the components assessed by the TACL-PBS and student outcomes (i.e., discipline referrals, rates of on-task behavior). A significant, negative correlation was found between the consistent use of classroom management practices by teachers and ODR's. Results also indicated that as the teacher use of classroom management practices (as reported by students) increased, rates of student on-task behavior increased. The presence of preplanned and sequential procedures for respon

ding to behavioral violations (i.e., consequence system) had the second highest relation to the numbers of discipline referrals in a classroom. The study also found that the fidelity with which school-wide PBS was being implemented at the building-level did not significantly relate to implementation at the classroom-level. Discussion focuses on theoretical and practical implications of the current results, limitations, and directions for future research.