Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Public Health

Major Professor

Aurora Sanchez-Anguiano, M.D.


Antibiotic resistance/, Pneumococcal disease, Risk factors, Epidemiology, Incidence


Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major bacterial pathogen which causes pneumoniae, meningitis, otitis media, and bacteremia. Currently there are two vaccines available, Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV) for adults and the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) for children. The PCV vaccine was developed in 2000 specifically for children and infants due to the ineffectiveness of the PPV vaccine in children. This is a cross sectional study of invasive S. pneumoniae in Florida during 2003. This study is designed to determine the population characteristics, clinically relevant antibiotic resistance patterns and specific risk factors for development of antibiotic resistance of invasive S. pneumoniae. Participants for the study of antimicrobial resistance will be selected if they are positive for invasive S. pneumoniae, and have been reported to the Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Epidemiology with a laboratory specimen collection date in 2003.

A total of 1056 cases were reported. The incidence of invasive S. pneumoniae was calculated. Logistic regression was used to find an association between each risk factor and invasive S. pneumoniae. 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated to determine statistical significance. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease was calculated to be 6.61 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 6.21 -- 7.01). The incidence of drug resistant S. pneumoniae was calculated to be 3.3 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 3.03 -- 3.59).The incidence of penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) was estimated to be 2.6 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 2.37 -- 2.87).

Fifty percent of the cases qualified as Drug Resistant S. pneumoniae (DRSP), being non-susceptible to one or more antibiotics as defined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Age, race, gender, county and month of occurrence were evaluated as risk factors for DRSP. Only month of occurrence was determined to be a risk factor. Compared to current studies and previous results for Florida, it appears that Florida has a decreasing incidence of antibiotic resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. I believe that this is due to the use of the PCV vaccine.