Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Thomas H. Brandon, Ph.D.


Tobacco, Craving, Cigarettes, Cue-reactivity, Cold-pressor


Tobacco smoking has been associated with the development, protraction, and exacerbation of chronically painful conditions. Conversely, there is reason to believe that smokers may be motivated to use tobacco as a means of coping with their pain. To date, no controlled, experimental studies have tested for a causal relationship between pain and smoking motivation. The primary aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that laboratory-induced cold-pressor pain would enhance smoking motivation, as measured by self-reported urge to smoke and observation of immediate smoking behavior. The effect of a smoking cue was also tested. Smokers (n = 132) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in this 2 (Pain Manipulation) X 2 (Smoking Cue Manipulation) crossed factorial between-subjects design. Results indicated that both pain induction and the presence of smoking cues increased urge ratings, and pain induction also produced a shorter latency to smoke. The relationship between pain and increased urge to smoke was partially mediated by pain-induced negative affect. This study provides the first experimental evidence that situational pain can be a potent motivator of smoking.