Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Secondary Education

Major Professor

Michael J. Berson, Ph.D.

Co-Major Professor

J. Howard Johnston, Ph.D.


Research, Computers, Schools, Social studies, TPCK


In the social studies classroom, using technology, students may gain access to expansive knowledge, broaden their exposure to diverse people and perspectives, and engage in critical thinking activities necessary for citizenship education (Berson, 1996; Berson & Balyta, 2004; Berson & Berson, 2003; Bolick, McGlinn, & Siko, 2005; NCSS, 1994, 2006; Risinger, 1996; Whitworth & Berson, 2003). 21st Century Skills are valuable for students as they examine vast amounts of content relating to historical events, figures, societies, technological growth and examine the relationship of the content to today's global interactions. Research indicates that there remains a call for documentation of exemplary uses beyond that of research and basic presentation tools (Berson & Balyta, 2004; Bolick, McGlinn, & Siko, 2005; Kopkowski, 2006; NCSS, 2006; NEA, 2004; Technology Counts, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2004, 2005; Whitworth & Berson, 2003).

The continued need for research in the field should address the intersection of content, current effective technology practice, and pedagogy of innovative uses of technology in the classroom while offering a model or steps for use (Berson, 1996; Berson & Balyta, 2004; Berson, Lee, & Stuckart, 2001; Bolick, McGlinn, & Siko, 2005; Braun, 2002; Bull et al., 2007; CUFA Opening Session, 2005; Diem, 2000; Doolittle & Hicks, 2003; McGlinn, 2007; Mishra & Koehler, 2006; NCSS, 2006; Shulman, 1986; Whitworth & Berson, 2003). This study examined the types of technology being used in secondary World History classes and how they are being integrated. The study utilized a mixed-method approach using a survey instrument, Perceptions of Computers and Technology, designed to measure the types of software and integration of technology use in classrooms.

Written responses and follow-up of randomly selected cases served to provide complementary data to elaborate and clarify results from the quantitative portions of the analysis (Hogarty, Lang, & Kromrey, 2003; Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003).